Infertility: Causes, Diagnosis, Risks, and Treatment

Infertility treatment in noida

Infertility is when a couple is unable to get pregnant after trying for more than a year. Almost 15% of reproductive aged men and women are clouded by infertility. Infertility can keep away the sunshine of successful pregnancy and the blissful experience of parenthood. Knowing the cause, proper diagnosis and precise infertility treatment in Noida can be a silver lining to help gain fertility.

The causes of infertility can be due to various hormonal, genetic or even lifestyle factors. It is falsely presumed that infertility is restricted to women for the simple reason that she is unable to conceive. However, it is necessary to note that men too experience fertility issues and almost 40-50% of infertility cases are due to male infertility.

Couples dealing with infertility undergo a lot of psychological and social stress. Nevertheless, scientific advancements and advanced technologies can diagnose and treat various fertility issues in both men and women.

This article will give you details on what causes infertility, its diagnosis, associated risks and treatment options for both men and women from the infertility expert in Noida.

Table of Contents

Feel free to skip ahead if one topic catches your eye:

  1. What is Infertility?
  2. Common Signs and Symptoms of Infertility?
  3. Main Causes of infertility.
  4. Risks and Complications.
  5. Treatment of Infertility in Noida.


1. What is Infertility?

Infertility is a condition of the reproductive organs defined by the inability to get pregnant after repeated unprotected sexual intercourse for more than 12 months. Basically, infertility are of two types:

  • Primary infertility: A condition where the couple has not achieved pregnancy even once.
  • Secondary infertility: A condition where the couple have had a child before but unable to attain pregnancy for the second time.

However, It is observed that the incidence of primary infertility is more than that of secondary infertility. 

Infertility is not only a women’s issue but can affect men as well. Approximately around one third of the cases are due to fertility problems in men, one third of the cases are because of infertility in women and the rest one third of the cases are either because of a combined issue or the exact cause is unknown.

2. Common Signs and Symptoms of Infertility?

One of the prime infertility symptoms is the inability to get pregnant. Other signs of infertility in women are:

  • Irregular or absence of menstrual periods 
  • Prolonged periods of more than 35 days or occurrence of menstruation within/less than 20 days.
  • Heavy menstrual flow with excessive period cramps
  • Pain during sexual intercourse.
  • Hormonal variations with less sex drive 

Problems of infertility in men are related to low sperm count, and poor sperm quality. Some of the male signs and symptoms of male infertility include:

  • Problems relating to ejaculation
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Small and firm testicles
  • Swelling or formation of lump with pain in the testicular region
  • Hormonal fluctuations with reduced sex drive

3. Main Causes of Infertility

The underlying causes of infertility in both men and women can range from genetic inheritance of genes causing infertility to the external lifestyle habits, environmental factors. 

Some of the reasons for female infertility are:

  • Blocked fallopian tubes: Blockage of fallopian tubes can hinder the movement of egg and in turn restrict the fusion of egg and sperm. 
  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): One of the prime reasons for female infertility is PCOS which is associated with imbalance in reproductive hormones that can cause infertility. 
  • Premature ovarian failure: Unlike menopause, premature ovarian failure is a condition where the ovaries stop producing eggs before the age of 40 (before the actual age of menopause). 
  • Anovulation: Irregular menstruation leads to irregular ovulation or anovulation where the ovaries do not release eggs for three or more months.
  • Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a condition where the uterine layer (endometrium) grows outside the uterine cavity. This causes distorted anatomy of the pelvis, scar tissue formation, leading to infertility.
  • Other causes: Uterine fibroids, polyps, cysts in the ovaries, and other cervical problems can also lead to infertility.

Male infertility causes includes:

  • Oligospermia: Oligospermia (low sperm count) is when the sperm count is less than 15 million /ml.
  • Azoospermia: Azoospermia refers to no sperm production in males.
  • Abnormal sperm morphology: Variations in sperm shape, size and structure can affect the ability of the sperm to fertilize with the egg. 
  • Ejaculation disorders and retrograde ejaculation (sperms move back towards the urinary tract instead of passing through the penis during ejaculation).
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Obstructive azoospermia: Blockage of testis, vas deferens, and other ducts carrying semen can also cause improper release of sperms.

| Also Read: PCOS and Infertility |

4. Risks and Complications

Some of the potential risk factors for infertility in both men and women include:

  • Age: As the women’s age increases the production of quality eggs decreases. Men over the age 40 can become less fertile compared to younger men.
  • Smoking and alcohol consumption: Smoking and alcohol can increase the risk of erectile dysfunction, and cause low sperm count. It can also increase the risks of pregnancy and cause infertility in women.
  • Exposure to radiations and chemicals: Exposure to chemicals and radiations such as X-rays, radiations from laptops, mobiles can affect the sperm quality and quantity. 
  • Nutrition: A diet without enough folic acid, iron, zinc, vitamin B 12 can cause infertility especially in women.
  • Weight issues: being overweight or underweight can increase certain associated complications leading to fertility issues.
  • Lack of exercise: Inadequate exercise can influence hormone secretions causing fertility problems.
  • Psychological aspects: Too much stress, anxiety and depression can increase the possibilities of infertility conditions.
infertility treatment

5. Infertility treatment in Noida

Management of infertility treatment in Noida requires adequate diagnosis. Some of the diagnostic tests in men are:

  • Semen Analysis : The semen sample will be collected to check the various sperm characteristics including sperm motility, count and sperm morphology.
  • Urine Analysis : It helps check the presence of infection in the urine sample.
  • Ultrasound : Ultrasound uses sound waves to view the presence of blockage in the reproductive ducts , varicose, etc. 
  • Other tests : Other tests include blood tests, genetic tests, post ejaculate urine analysis, testicular biopsy etc that would help find the cause of fertility problems in men.

Diagnostic test in females include:

  • Ultrasonography : This technique involves the use of sound waves to check the status of the ovary and other reproductive organs in women. 
  • Hysterosalpingogram : It is a special X-ray technique that helps view blockages of the fallopian tubules, and other abnormalities.
  • Hysteroscopy : An hysteroscope (long thin device with light and camera) is inserted into the uterus to diagnose and treat various ailments of the uterus such as fibroids, polyps, etc. 
  • Laparoscopy : It is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that evaluates the pelvic region for a variety of problems of the ovary, fallopian tubes and uterus.
  • Hormonal assay : Hormonal assay is performed to check the levels of hormones such as FSH,LH, AMH, etc. Sometimes thyroid hormones, testosterone and prolactin levels are also checked for Women with PCOS. 
  • Other tests : Blood analysis, urinalysis, etc are other diagnostic tests.

Treatment options for infertility in both men and women include:

  • Hormonal therapy : Hormonal balance, proper production and function of hormones needs to be maintained. Hormonal therapy can regulate the hormones and help manage fertility causing problems.
  • Surgery : Surgery can be done to repair blocked ducts in the reproductive systems of both men and women. Surgery for treating varicocele or repair of obstructed vas deferens are performed in men. Correction of ducts, removal of fibroids, cysts, etc can be done by laparoscopy and hysteroscopy in women. 
  • Sperm Aspiration technique: In cases of low sperm count, or blockage of ducts in men, sperms can be retrieved through techniques like TESA, PESA, MESA and Micro TESE. 
  • Artificial Insemination: A procedure where the semen is collected, cleaned and is inseminated into the vagina through the cervix during ovulation is called Intrauterine Insemination (IUI). 
  • Assisted Reproductive Technique (ART): ART techniques use advanced procedures to help improve the odds of conceiving. Some of the ART procedures are :
  1. IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (IVF) : IVF is a procedure of ART where the retrieved sperms are fertilized in vitro (in a lab) with retrieved eggs from the couple. The fertilized egg is incubated and allowed to develop. Ideally, after 3-5 days, the embryos are transferred into the uterus. 
  2. INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION (ICSI) : Men with problems related to sperm quality and structure can select the sperms and can be directly injected into the egg. The fertilized egg is allowed to attain maturity after which it is transferred.
  3. Third party-assisted ART: This is when ART uses donor eggs/sperms/embryos to help couples conceive successfully. ART allows the use of surrogacy or gestational carrier for conceiving.


Dealing with infertility is difficult. But, advanced insemination and ART techniques can help gain fertility and bestow you with the priceless experience of becoming parents. Dr. Preeti, gynaecologist in Noida, will assist you with diagnosis, treatment of your fertility concern and help you with a successful pregnancy.